The 7th Global Conference on Polymer and Composite Materials (PCM 2020)

Field Visit – The Pyramids of Giza

No visit to Cairo would be complete without a visit to perhaps the most famous man-made structures in the world. Built during a time when Egypt was one of the richest and most powerful civilizations in the world, the pyramids—especially the Great Pyramids of Giza, one of the largest pyramids in the world—are some of the most magnificent man-made structures in history. Their massive scale reflects the unique role that the pharaoh, or king, played in ancient Egyptian society.

Located in the Nile Delta, the Giza complex was built by three pharaohs of ancient Egypt: Khufu, Khafra and Menkaura. It is the most mature representative of the ancient Egyptian pyramid. The Giza complex is mainly composed of the Khufu Pyramid, the Khafre Pyramid, the Menkaura Pyramid, the Great Sphinx, and many “Mastaba” and small pyramids. The Great Pyramid of Khufu is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.


Ancient Egyptians believed that the divine pharaoh's soul was meant to join with the sun during its descent before continuing with the sun in its eternal round, therefore, the pyramids are shaped as a reference to the rays of the sun and were designed to help the king's soul ascend to heaven and join the gods, particularly the sun god Ra.


The Great Sphinx is located near the Great Pyramid of Giza in southwest Cairo. The body of a lion and head of a human, the mythical Sphinx is a creature most have known since childhood - made famous by this limestone masterpiece. In ancient Egyptian mythology, the lion is the guardian of various mysterious places and underground world, the great Sphinx was built to guard the Pharaoh after his death.
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